There are a number of different approaches used by professional counsellors. Perhaps the three main approaches are psychodynamic, humanistic and behavioural.
Each of these has a different theory and ideas underpinning it, and the therapists and counsellors using each will approach problems and issues in different ways.
Behavioral counseling theories hold that people engage in problematic thinking and behavior when their environment supports it. When an environment reinforces or encourages these problems, they will continue to occur.
Behavioral counselors work to help clients identify the reinforcements that are supporting problematic patterns of thinking and acting and replace them with alternative reinforcements for more desirable patterns.
Currently, preferred therapies based on behavior theory include behavior therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, multimodal therapy, and conjoint sex therapy.